At the beginning of the 20th century, it was considered dangerous that the center of the Ottoman Empire, which lost power after the Balkan War and the First World War, remained in Istanbul, and the issue of moving the capital to another city in Anatolia came to the agenda. On December 27, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representation of countrywide resistance organization came to Ankara and announced to all members of the parliament that the meeting would be held in Ankara.
Established on April 23, 1920, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, as Ankara had announced the government center. In this way, the city became a center where the War of Independence was administered. Ankara October 13, 1923 issued by the new law was officially announced as the new capital of Turkey.
Ankara hosts dozens of historical, cultural, religious and touristic buildings. Let’s take a look at some of them together!
Ankara the center of Turkey’s capital and Turkish politics, but also the founder of the Republic of Turkey Great Leader the Mustafa Kemal Ataturk’s is home to the mausoleum which is called Anıtkabir.
Anıtkabir, where the Great Leader made his eternal rest; is among the first places that Turkish citizens of all walks of life should visit, regardless of whether they are men or women, young or old.
All of the towers, squares, museums, and mausoleums within the borders of Anıtkabir have a different meaning and importance.
It is possible to find the most developed traces of Turkish architecture from the 1940s in Anıtkabir, which covers an area of 750 thousand square meters in total.
As you can organize a daily trip to Ankara just to visit Anıtkabir; You can combine your visit with other important tourist destinations in Ankara and even in Central Anatolia.
Haci Bayram Veli Mosque
The Haci Bayram Veli Mosque is located in Augustus Square on Bayram Street. It is a mosque with a stone base, brick walls and a tile roof. The longitudinal rectangular mosque rests on the Augustos Temple wall in the east and the Haci Bayram Veli Tomb in the south.
With its original atmosphere, Haci Bayram Mosque attracts both those who attach importance to spirituality and those who attach importance to history. When you look at the religious building, which owes its originality to its architectural features, do not be fooled by its plain appearance. Because when you enter it, details that will dazzle your eyes are waiting for you.
The history of Ankara Castle is exactly the same as the history of Ankara city. According to the legend, the whole issue begins with the dream of the Phrygian King Midas. Today, the Phrygian King Midas, who is located in the ancient city of Gordion, which is about 28 km away in Polatlı district of the city, sees in one night a voice telling him to search for a ship anchor in his land and establish a city where the anchor is located, that this city will bring him happiness.
Midas then orders all his men in the city to search for anchors and an anchor is found at the point where Ankara Castle is located today. Midas establishes a city where the anchor is located and gives its name “Anker” or “Ankira“, which means ship anchor.
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
Located in Ulus, the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations is one of the few museums in the world with its unique collections today. In the museum, which attracts the attention of both local and foreign tourists, Anatolian Archeology is displayed in chronological order in these historical places of the Ottoman period starting from the Paleolithic Age until today.
Independence War Museum
War of Independence Museum (I. TBMM), is like a nature sanctuary for those interested in the history of the Republic of Turkey. The museum, which is full of documents and items with valuable information about the War of Independence and the first years of the Republic, also proves how great sacrifices a nation can endure for its independence.
Museum of the Republic
Republic Museum or II. Grand National Assembly of Turkey building in 1923 by architect Vedat Tek People’s Republic Party on the basement designed as a meeting place was built of cut stone in two layers. However, when the 1st TBMM building was not sufficient at that time, it was arranged as a council building and opened for service on 18 October 1924.
Building; Having an important place in Turkish political history, II. Parliament, the realization of Ataturk’s principles and revolutions in the years 1924-1960, the removal of important laws, has witnessed the signing of international agreements such as the transition to a multiparty system and political history of Turkey’s major events.
In 1963, in the village of Yassıhöyük Polatlı district of the city, Gordion Museum was founded, added warehouses in the 1990s, laboratory, lounge with image, and information are one of Turkey’s most important museums. The museum, which presents the works collected from the Polatlı district, especially those obtained from the Gordion excavations, to display chronologically, became the finalist in the European Museum of the Year competition in 2000.
Among the works exhibited in the museum are pottery from the Early Bronze Age, Middle and Late Bronze Age, Early Phrygian Age, orthostats with reliefs from the Early Iron Age, and iron tools belonging to the Early Phrygian Period. Spindle whorls used in weaving, glass, seal, and seal impressions; historical Alexander coins are located in the entrance hall.
Beypazari is located 100 Km northwest of Ankara, on the old Ankara-Istanbul road. Today, as in the past, it is still a social, cultural, and economic center in the middle of Ayaş, Güdül, Nallıhan and Kıbrıscık Districts.
When we look at the historical course of Anatolia, it is seen that the Beypazarı district was dominated by the Hittite, Phrygian, Galatian, Roman, Byzantine, and later Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans. For this reason, its historical value is quite high.
Temple of Augustus
The Temple of Augustus is one of the oldest historical remains of the capital, with its history dating back two thousand years and located in the Altındağ district of the city.
The Temple of Augustus, built in the name of the Phrygian god Men after 25 BC, was gradually destroyed. As for today, the ruins of the temple are found. This temple was built by King Pilamenes, the son of the last Galatian ruler, on behalf of the Roman emperor Augustus because it was a sign of loyalty. It takes its name from the name of the emperor. Later, the Byzantines made various additions and turned it into a church by opening the windows. Nowadays, the Augustus Temple is located in Ulus, Ankara, adjacent to the Hacı Bayram Mosque.
Ankara Ethnography Museum
Ankara Ethnography Museum was established on the hill which is a Muslim cemetery in the district of Ankara called Namazgah. The first building was constructed as a museum building in Turkey.
Ethnography Museum is a museum where Anatolian works belonging to the Turkish-Islamic Period are exhibited. In the halls, there are exhibitions on clothing, embroidery, jewelry, henna night, groom shaving, and bath culture. Weaving samples belonging to various regions of Anatolia, samples of metal art and tools and equipment belonging to coppersmithing, an exhibition on coffee culture, spoons, exhibitions on Turkish room and circumcision ceremony, Turkish tiles, ceramics, glass, weapons, manuscripts, plates, and Seljuk and distinguished wooden works are belonging to the Ottoman Period.